India is the second most populous country in the world, after China. Overpopulation is among the more serious problems that our country is facing. It can be defined as an undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth.
Some of the reasons for overpopulation are as follows;
- Low literacy rate-One of the most important cause of overpopulation is illiteracy. The uneducated fail to understand the issues and problems that are caused by the increasing population rate. Being unaware of the various ways to control population and the usage of contraceptives and birth control measures they also fail to understand the urgent need to prevent excessive growth of population.
- Child marriages-Child marriage is one of the social issues that has been very common to our country. The mortality rate of infants is directly related to the age of women during marriage.
- Poverty-Another reason for the increase in population in our country is poverty. Poverty stricken families have the notion that the more the number of family members, more will be the income of the family. Many among them still believe that sons are the bread earners of the family. In order to honour this belief they make sure that a male child is born in the family.
- Lack of family planning-Many people in our country are illiterate and they don’t know about the various advantages of family planning and the effects of overpopulation on the society. Being unaware of family planning also causes a rise in the population rate.
Though various measures have been undertaken to control the growing population rate in our country, it continues to have serious effects on the society and its people.
- Depletion of natural resources-One of the most serious effects of overpopulation is depletion of natural resources. The earth can produce limited quantity of food and water and the growing population is overburdening the earth’s resources. This results in malnutrition, starvation among the underprivileged and also forces them to live in unhealthy living conditions Majority of the environmental problems like pollution and deforestation are being caused by overpopulation.
- Unemployment and Illiteracy-Two of the major problems caused by overpopulation is unemployment and illiteracy. Education is very important as it helps the people earn a basic livelihood and enjoy the basic necessities of life. Due to population growth, unemployment and poverty rates are also increasing,thus making it difficult for the people to enjoy a healthy life.
- Unequal distribution of wealth-Overpopulation is also causing an unequal distribution of wealth and income in the country. This is widening the gap between the rich and poor.
India’s rapid population growth continues to hinder her progress and development. It is not possible to reduce the existing size of the population but it is possible to check the rate at which the population of our country is increasing. The following points talk about the ways one can overcome the problem of population growth by spreading awareness about the following.
- Awareness about family planning- One of the most effective methods to keep the population growth in check is to spread awareness about the contraceptive measures and birth control techniques. Making people aware of the benefits and ways of family planning will also help in overcoming the problem of overpopulation.
- Effects of overpopulation- Once people know that unemployment, poverty, illiteracy, unhealthy living conditions, depletion of natural resources and environmental problems are all results of overpopulation, people themselves will take initiatives to control the population growth.
- Education- Educating the masses will enable them to understand the need to have one or two children at the most.
Intense growth of population is certainly a problem that our country needs to overcome. The government, various NGO’s and the people of the society have to work together to solve the problem of overpopulation in our country.